The Sun: UV rays produce excess melanin, which is deposited in the skin.
Inflammation: Trauma to the skin is one of the main causes for hyperpigmentation, and also responsible for sharp, blunt or normal irritation and inflammation.
Acne: The more severe the blemish the more inflamed the skin is, and the more likely it is to pigment. Inflamed areas naturally produce more melanin.
Hormones: Pregnancy, birth control, and menopause can cause a spike in melanin production.
Lasers and peels: Laser and strong chemical peels cause inflammation, and the body may respond with brown patches or stripes.
Medication: Some antibiotics (sulphonamides and tetracyclines) and medications to treat Parkinson’s disease, cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, can lead to dark patches as an allergic reaction or because of increased sun sensitivity.
Regardless of what caused your skin to become uneven in tone, the slightest bit of sun exposure (mere minutes in the sun can be enough for some) can trigger the skin to kick melanin production into overdrive. That’s why wearing sunscreen daily is stressed in almost all the sections.
Surface pigmentation vs. deep pigmentation
When pigmentation is on the top most layer of your skin, the discolouration is more of a light brown colour and is more diffused. It also responds better to treatment. Pigmentation deep within skin takes on more of a dark brown or grey shade and is solid and hence harder to treat.
These are a series of light ‘chemical’ peels that use Salicylic Acid, Lactic Acid, Glycolic Acid, resorcinol, TCA, Jessner’s solution etc. They can improve skin texture and colour.
Laser resurfacing treatments and intense pulsed light (IPL)
Laser treatments—in which a beam of fractionated energy is delivered to skin to incite a wound-healing response— can work wonders to correct hyperpigmentation or more specifically sunspots and acne scars. When using lasers to treat hyperpigmentation, it is important that a low- energy, non-ablative fractional laser is used. Otherwise, new or more pigmentation can develop. Nd: YAG lasers can also be used to treat spots.
Enzymes are tiny little proteins that accelerate chemical reactions in skin cells and on the surface of the skin, they are responsible for softening it. They also dissolve and digest old, dry skin cells so that you can wash them away easily to reveal healthy, glowing skin. Enzymes tend to be gentler than acids in chemically loosening the cells of your outer most layer. Enzymes are less acidic and have a pH value closer to the skin’s natural state. Every fruit has an enzyme and all of them can help, so you can simply use the pulp to massage or apply it as a pack and let it stay on for 15 minutes.
Keep your skin free from pigmentation!